Note: This is an OCRed copy of the 1984 pdf document. It has not been proof-read


              MARCH 1984

Page Contents

2    Introduction
3    A Short History of Vienna
5    Historical Map
6    Vienna Today
8    Growth and Development
8      Recent Changes
9      Vienna in the Future
9      Land Use Controls
11     Road Maintenance Plan
13   Road Map, 1984
14   Environmental concerns
14     Water Quality
16     Beautifications and Esthetics
17   Conclusion


              Submitted by the Town Planning Board

              Susan Burns
              Creston Gaither, Secretary
              Knute Kilponen
              Ellen Miller, Alternate
              Robert Nurse
              Waine Whittier, Chairman
              Alan Williams, Alternate

            MARCH 1984


   Most of our state statutes concerning local planning, land
use regulation and subdivision controls were revised or elim-
inated during past legislative sessions. Municipalities may now
by virtue of 'Home Rule Establishing Provisions" (30 M.R.S.A.
*1917) establish Planning Boards by ordinance.
   Vienna chose, in 1973, to establish,a Planning Board. One
of the tasks of Vienna's early Planning Board was to prepare a
Comprehensive Plan which was approved by the townspeople in March
1974. Several Ordinances have since then been submitted by the
Planning Board, in keeping with the Comprehensive Plan, to the
townspeople for consideration. Specifically, the following ordi-
nances have been adopted:

       Shoreline Zoning Ordinance
       Flood Control Regulations
       Subdivision Regulations
       Notification of Construction Regulation

   A proposed Building Code and a proposed Site Plan Review
Ordinance were also submitted to the townspeople but, not
   State law requires that the Planning Board maintain and
update the Comprehensive Plan. Indeed, the Comprehensive Plan is
not a one time effort. It is an ever changing guideline adopted
and updated by the town to bring about the changes we anticipate
in an orderly way to the benefit of us all. Accordingly, the
Comprehensive Plan was updated in March 1979 and is again being
updated with this writing. This plan does not differ greatly in
philosophy from the earlier versions but sections have been
rewritten and expanded.
   It should be noted that the Comprehensive Plan is a guide to
the townspeople and Planning Board, not a law that we must live
by. If conditions arise that need to be resolved, they should be
resolved in accordance with the philosophies set for in this
Comprehensive Plan. The elected officials can only implement and
enforce established ordinances. If the people or the Planning
Board believe new ordinances or regulations are necessary they
must first be submitted to the townspeople for consideration.
Public hearings must be held and public records must be kept so
that we all can help in guiding the future of our Town.
   The Town Planning Board cannot arbitrarily dictate its will
on the citizens and/or fail to give the individual the oppor-
tunity to appeal where regulations may foster hardship. State
laws exist governing variances and exceptions to make the appli-
cation of our regulations and ordinances fair.







    Vienna, the most northwesterly town of Kennebec County, is
surrounded by Chesterville, Fayette, Mount Vernon, Rome, and New
Sharon, Approximately six miles long and six miles wide, the
area was purchased in 1782 from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
by a well—known surveyor, Jedidiah Prescott, and his brother—in-
law, Nathaniel Whittier. The Prescotts and the Whittiers had
come from New Hampshire and settled in East Readfield, near
Winthrop. Before 1782, Vienna had been a part of the Wyman
Plantation, called Goshen. The date of incorporation was
February 20, 1802, although settlement had begun in the early
1780's and Prescott had surveyed it in 1792. Vienna was the
132nd town to incorporate into the Province of Maine. The name
`Vienna' was given in honor of one of the oldest cities of
Europe, the capital of the former Austrian Empire. It was chosen
by Daniel Morrill of Salisbury, Massachusetts, who had been
designated to make the choice.
    The early town meetings were held in homes and schoolhouses
until, in 1855, a new Town House was built in the area then known
as the "Upper Village." The new building was given to his native
town by Joseph Whittier of Boston. Part of the lumber for the
structure was taken from the 'old Yellow meeting house' that
stood on the east side of the Franklin Cemetery.
    The shape of Vienna has changed somewhat since the original
survey map. A large portion of the land around Parker Pond,
originally in the Wyman Plantation, was lost to Fayette, Mount
Vernon and Chesterville, between 1802 and 1814. Vienna has been
enlarged by two strips of territory taken from Rome in 1814 and
from Mount Vernon in 1833.
    Unlike many Maine towns and villages, Vienna has not become
the quiet shadow of a formerly busy industrial area. It has
always been a "country town.' However, there had been a constant
decline in the population of Vienna over the past years until
1960. This had been due primarily to under—development of the
general area and a consequent lack of employment opportunities.
This in turn resulted in a lower tax base during the 1900's as
compared to other Maine localities. Population statistics from
census figures since 1850 are as follows:
    1850-871 1890-495  1930-318 1970-205
    1860-878 1900-406  1940-301 1980-454
    1870-740 1910-403  1950-231
    1880-644 1920-366  1960-160

    The people of Vienna did not differ greatly from the people
of the rest of the state. There was some influx of other nation-
alities, yet the occupations of most residents were connected to
their land, farming and lumbering being the major ones, tourist
guides for hunting and fishing, mill work on textiles and foot-
wear in nearby towns. Vienna itself had at one time four mills:
a fulling and a carding mill, a grist mill, and a saw mill.
    In the mid 1800's, Vienna had one distinguishing feature
from other area towns. It had its own newspaper, "The Glenwood
Valley Times," with. Rufus N. Mansur its editor and proprietor.
Subscriptions, in 1850, were 25 cents a year paid in advance or
37 1/2 cents a year if paid within six months. The latest issue


on record (on microfilm at the University of Maine at Farmington
library) is dated 1857. Dorothy Waugh, the Town Treasurer, has
original copies of the newspaper at her home.
   According to the census a hundred years ago, there were
three carriage—makers, a general store, three blacksmiths, a
wheelwright, a cooperage, a brick kiln, a granite quarry and a
cattle broker doing business within the town limits of Vienna.
Their standard of living was the average for the State of Maine
in general, but the steadfast endurance of the people of the area
has maintained them through good times and bad ever since the act
of incorporation.
   The rise evident in the population figures from 1960-8D is
attributable to- people "from away," the reflection of a trend in
migration from the more developed areas where the jobs are, to
rural areas where the quality of living is finer and the pace
slower. Modern automobiles and highway improvements have bridged
the two and Vienna has become, to an extent, a commuter
community. However, its traditionally rural character which has
been preserved through the past century is still in existence.
   The increase in population has necessitated increased
service, including a Town Volunteer Fire Department. In 1973,
the town's first fire truck was purchased and subsequently a two—
bay firehouse was built. Presently, the town owns two trucks, a
Seagrave 1954 and an International 1963, both in good condition.
Much of the money for these ventures has been raised by the
Volunteer Fire Department and its Auxiliary. In 1983, the
department started a free chimney cleaning project which will
become an annual fire prevention service to the community.
   The Village Extension is another group active in the
community. Known as Farm Bureau in an earlier day, the statewide
Extension Service provides informal education in the areas of
agriculture, family living and community development. Recently
the Vienna group has contributed funds toward microfilming town
records and for kitchen equipment in the firehouse.
   The Mill Stream Grange, formed in 1947, is indicative of the
continuing rural atmosphere of the town. The Grange continues to
attract new members. In 1966, the village schoolhouse was
purchased and later a kitchen wing was added. The Grange carries
on many charitable activities. The organization also makes the
hail available for various community events.
   In 1981, the Vienna Historical Society was formed and has
become an active force in the community. Through its efforts,
the Town House has been placed on the National Record of Historic
Places. A Town House sign and a monument to Civil War veterans
were donated in the name of the society. The Historical Society
has also located the old animal "pound" and the land owner has
given permission for the society to restore the site. Recently
the society's first publication has been completed--a 1984
calendar edited by Lillian Brown. It contains 14 photographs of
historical significance. Work on other publications is in
   Though there were undeniably silent years, Vienna's two
churches have survived population fluctuation and economic
change. Today, the Vienna Baptist and North Vienna Methodist
churches have regular pastors and growing congregations.

====Map of Vienna circa 1850 ========

                VIENNA TODAY

    Vienna is bounded by similar small towns: New Sharon, Rome,
Mt. Vernon, Fayette, and Chesterville. Augusta, Winthrop,
Farmington, Skowhegan, and Waterville are all within commuting
distance. Vienna sits in the foothills of the Western Maine
mountains. It is heavily forested and difficult to farm. Its
many ponds ultimately drain into the Sandy and Androscoggin
Rivers. It encompasses about 25 square miles, making it just a
bit larger than Manhattan island.
    Vienna remains rural. The Town maintains about 23 miles of
road, both paved and unpaved. The State of Maine maintains about
5 miles of Route 41 within the Town. Public buildings include a
Baptist church, a Methodist church, a small post office, the Town
House, and a fire station. Recreational buildings include the
Mill Stream Grange Hall, the Union Hall, and the Historical
Society Building.
    Vienna's population grew faster than any other town's in
Kennebec County from 1970 to 1980, with a 121% increase (from 205
to 454 people). This trend seems to have levelled of f. Some of
the adults are retired or semi-retired. Most of the others
commute to the larger towns or cities, though some work locally
at farming, lumbering, blueberrying, and other small-scale
enterprises. S.A.D. #9 reports that 86 Vienna' children attend
either New Sharon Elementary School, Mt. Blue Junior High or Mt.
Blue High School.
    Three selectmen and several other officials administer the
Town's daily affairs.. Major decisions and appropriations are
made at Town Meetings, which are usually well attended.
    The Town has pursued a middle-of-the-road approach to
ordinances and regulations, protecting itself from exploitation
and abuse while avoiding regulatory overkill.

    Town ordinances include:

    1. Notification of Construction Ordinance - - requires a per-
    mit for most substantial construction projects. There is no
    building code, but proof of compliance with the State
    plumbing permit requirements is necessary. $3 fee ($15 in
    Shoreline Zone).

    2. Road Ordinance - - provides procedures and standards for
    submission of certain roads to the Town by the Selectmen for
    acceptance. Administered by the Selectmen.

    3. Shoreline Zoning Ordinance - - regulates land use within
    250 feet of the shores of lakes of 10 acres or more and of
    McGurdy Stream. $15 fee, plus possible professional fees.

    4. Subdivision Regulations - - provides procedures and stan-
    dards for review and approval of subdivisions (as defined by
    state law). $25 fee per lot.

    5. Hazardous Waste Ordinance - - prohibits storage and/or
    disposal of certain hazardous wastes. Huge fines possible.
    Enforced by Code Enforcement Officer.


   6.  Flood Hazard Building Permit System - - This ordinance was
     enacted in 1976 in accordance with the National Flood Insur-
     ance Program. It requires a permit for construction within
     designated flood areas, and requires certain practices which
     resist or minimize flood damage..

     These ordinances are administered by the Planning Board
unless noted otherwise. Land use and development in Vienna are
also subject to all pertinent state and federal regulations and
to any Town ordinances not listed above.-Certain utility
companies may have additional requirementp of their own.
     The problems of the larger towns have begun to find their
way to Vienna. Water quality in Flying Pond may be deterior-
ating. The Town's tax burden has increased dramatically over the
past ten years as shown by the expenditure table below. State
legislation may force the elimination of constable services.
Concern over even larger issues was evident in the Town's passage
of a Hazardous Waste Ordinance in 1981 and in its 1982 Town
Meeting participation in the national debate concerning a nuclear

                   Amount    %   Amount          %    Increase
Schools     $ 36,186   61.5   $ 92,333      47.4     155
Roads        14,604    24.8     75,540      38.8     417
Administration4,003  6.8       12,786        6.6     219
County Tax    1,224    2.1      5,862        3.0     379
Fire Department 399  0.7     3,500*          1.8     777
Dump          1,011  1.7     1,474           0.8      46
Other         1,435    2.4     3,094          1.6    116
Total        58,863            194,589                 231

*Includes $2500 expenditure for fire truck. Without this
expenditure the Fire Department increase would have been


====Pie Chart 1973 vs 1984 expenditures =======

                       GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

                           Recent Changes

     The increase in population in Vienna has been accompanied by
the construction of many new houses. This development involves a
number of other changes, including an increase in the demand for
local services. Examples include increases in the number of
children attending school, requests for the acceptance of addi-
tional roads as town ways and increased appropriations for the
Fire Department.
     Whether or not such changes raise the concerns of local
residents depends in part upon how the changes occur. Physical
changes often take place slowly and are hardly noticed, such as a
single house being built on a back road. Other changes happen
more quickly and draw a lot of attention, such as when a
developer subdivides a parcel of land into several lots,
constructs a new road, and builds and offers for sale a number of
new houses. Development in Vienna over the past several years
has not reached the scale of the latter example. The subdivision
of land, though, has occurred to a significant extent for a town
of Vienna's size.


     Several parcels of land were subdivided in the seventies and
early eighties. Vienna is a town where a limited amount of land
appears on the real estate market, so a new subdivision often
offers people the chance they've wanted to buy land and build in

     The following table lists the subdivision applications which
were reviewed from 1968 through 1983:

                                 VIENNA SUBDIVISIONS
Name or Owner              Year Location     Number of Lots
E.Farrington Abbott, Jr .  1968 Flying Pond        16
E.Farrington Abbott, Jr .  1969 near Flying Pond 15
Eugene Herrin              1969 Flying Pond        15
Vienna Shores              1973 Flying Pond        14
North Woods Shores         1970 Flying Pond        17
Vienna Shores              1971 Flying Pond         3
Eugene Herrin              1971 Flying Pond         7
Black Woods Shores         1972 Black Pond          4
Patten Realty              1981 Kimball Pond Road 11
Alvin & Mary Hastings            1983 Davis Road          5

Subdivisions prior to 1981 involved lots of relatively small size
compared to the 1981 and 1983 subdivisions.

New Construction

       Concurrent with the increase in population from 1970 to
1983, came a substantial increase in the number of homes as shown
in the following table:




                       VIENNA HOUSING
Type of House1970 1980 1983  % change

Year-round   78   185  202   159
 -Conventional    77   175   190  147
 —Mobile Home 1   10   12    1,100
Seasonal     109  93   99    -9
TOTAL        187  278  301   61

    Source:1970, 1980 U.S. Census,;„ 1980-1983;records of noti-
    fication of construction permits.


                      Vienna in the Future

     Prospects for future growth and development are difficult to
predict, especially, for a small, outlying town. Many factors
influence peoples' decisions to settle or start a business in a
particular location.
     Vienna certainly provides a desirable rural setting, with
its many ponds, forested bills, scenic village and sparse
development. The Town does not, however, offer many local job
opportunities. Therefore, most people must travel elsewhere to
work, involving considerable time and travel expenses. Nor does
the Town have a large population to support lOcal business
enterprises, or convenient access to major transportation routes
or product markets for manufacturing firms.
     Development in Vienna over the past two decades has been
dominated by residential construction. That pattern will
probably continue. It is in the Town's interests, though, to
consider what the impacts upon the Town may be if such settlement
continues and what the benefits or drawbacks of trying to guide
such development through various land use controls are. The same
applies to the occasional commercial or industrial concerns which
may locate in Town.
     It is important to keep in mind, when considering the
enactment of land use controls, that once a substantial
development proposal is wade, it is too late to pass an ordinance
and review that development under the new ordinance. It is also
too late, once strip development occurs along Route 41, to then
try to remove the offensive land uses. Land use regulations work
primarily to control development in the future.

                       Land Use Controls

     Vienna can select from several methods those controls most
appropriate for guiding growth and land use in town. Often, a
combination of controls is necessary in order to effectively
handle development. Brief descriptions of various ordinances are
presented below. Three of them, Road Ordinance, Shoreline Zoning
Ordinance and Subdivision Regulations, are already in effect.
Whether or not more regulations are desirable is a matter for the
Townspeople to decide.




Road Construction Ordinance
   The building of roads involves the issues of public safety
and public maintenance costs. Following education, highway
expenses are the second largest item in the town budget. Since
requests to the town to accept roads as public ways can result in
high improvement and maintenance costs, it is in the town's
interest to set standards for the construction of roads when they
are first laid out and built in order to avoid later costs to the
town. Vienna's present ordinance sets forth the procedures for
accepting certain roads but does not mandate that all roads meet
the standards before acceptance.

Subdivision Regulations
   The State Subdivision Law gives towns the responsibility for
reviewing the division of land parcels into lots. The law
authorizes the review of subdivisions' impacts upon air and water
quality, soil erosion, floodplains, traffic and unique historic
and natural areas.
   The actual regulations which the Planning Board follows
establish the procedure for reviewing subdivision proposals and
include standards for lot layout. The basic purpose for
reviewing new subdivisions of land is to ensure that the soils
are suited to development and that the plan provides for safe and
adequate improvements, such as roads,. drainage and utilities.
Vienna revised its subdivision regulations in 1982.

Zoning Ordinance
   Zoning is one of the most controversial land use controls.
Vienna, under a mandate by the State, enacted a Shoreline Zoning
Ordinance in the early 70's. It applies only to land within 250
feet of the shores of lakes of 10 acres or more and of McGurd y
Stream. The town has revised the Ordinance twice since it was
first passed, most recently in 1982.
   Generally, zoning specifies the density of development and
location of various land uses. Lot sizes which vary by district
determine the density of development. Specification of allowed
uses by district determines the locations of different types of
development. A zoning map delineates the districts so landowners
know which regulations pertain to their property.

Site Plan Review Ordinance
   The purpose of a site plan review is to ensure that large
development proposals are well designed and meet minimum
standards of quality. It usually applies to activities not
subject to Subdivision Regulations, such as an industrial plant
or retail store. The site plan review does not address whether a
proposed use is allowed in a particular area, such as with zoning
districts, but does concern itself with the specifics of the
development of the Bite.
   The Site Plan Review Ordinance sets up a procedure for
reviewing commercial and industrial development proposals. It
lists detailed information which the developer must provide, and
establishes the guidelines by which the Planning Board evaluates
the site plan. The guidelines usually set standards which
pertain to the development's impact upon surrounding areas,




public services, traffic safety and parking. Such-an ordinance
was proposed in 1981, but was voted down.

Minimum Lot Size Ordinance
      Minimum .lot size regulations serve a couple of purposes.
One of the most common is to protect public health and safety by
insuring that development (primarily residential in Vienna) takes
place on lots large enough to safely accommodate subsurface waste
disposal systems at the required distances from individual water
supplies (wells or springs) on the new lots and on adjacent lots.
Another purpose widely cited is to protect the rural character of
a town by requiring lot sizes that are at least one acre, and
quite often two acres, in size, thus resulting in. more distance
between houses on adjacent lo-s.
      Vienna does not currently have a minimum lot size which
applies throughout town. The Shoreline Zoning Ordinance does set
a 1/2 acre minimum which applies only in shoreland areas. The
Subdivision Regulations require a minimum lot size of 2 acres for
new lots in subdivisions.

              Road Maintenance Plan
      One of the major expenses to face the town of Vienna in the
future is the maintenance of the town's roads. This is evidenced
by the over $75,000 expenditure for roads in 1983, an increase of
about 400% over 1973's level. Proper maintenance of the roads is
necessary to:

      • Insure Safe Transportation
      • Allow for Emergency Vehicle Movement
      • Protect Property Value
      • Prevent Wasted Tax Dollars

      The town is responsible for maintenance of 22.7 miles of
roads as shown on the map on page 12. Of these, 13.4 miles are
paved and 18.4 are plowed. Within the past six years about 2.7
miles of these paved roads have been repaved with rolled, hot
paving. Maintenance of our roads requires adequate ditching and
culverts, patching of broken pavement, repaving, bushcutting and
roadside mowing, grading unpaved roads, road improvement and
emergency repair, and snowplowing and sanding. Expenditures for
these various categories in 1983 were as follows:
   Summary of 1983 Road Maintenance Expenditures
          Ditching and Culverts          $2,864
          Patching of Broken Pavement    3,455
          Repaving                       29,503
          Bushcutting & Roadside Mowing    117
          Grading, Improvements & Repair 13,381
           Snowplowing & Sanding         26,220
          Total                   $ 75,540 or
                              $3200 per mile







  Whether or not this expenditure level is adequate to
properly maintain and improve Vienna's roads is debatable. A
road maintenance plan should be developed to aid the Selectmen,
Road Commissioner, and townspeople in determining an appropriate
road maintenance program and expenditure level to support that
program. The plan should provide guidelines for road maintenance
which would provide continuity from one administration (Board of
Selectmen and Road Commissioner) to the next.
  This plan should provide guidelines for the frequency of
repaving roads and grading unpaved roads. It should describe
necessary ditching and grading and cite specific troublespots in
the town. Tradeoffs between more frequent repaving and patching
could be discussed. Methods for good "preventative" road main-
tenance should be presented.
  The plan could be so detailed as to describe a five-year
plan of specific maintenance and improvement projects with accom-
panying budget estimates. Such a five-year plan would be a
guideline to follow, but flexible enough to be altered in
response to emergency conditions or changing needs.
  The potential of individual efforts or organized volunteer
work groups could be pursued. Voluntary projects could include.
bushcutting, roadside mowing, or simply getting out with a hoe or
shovel to cut small diversion ditches from the roadbed-to major
ditches and cleaning- out obstructed culverts.

=====Map of Vienna - 194 ======


             Water Quality

   The town of Vienna lies on the divide between the Andro-
scoggin River basin and the Kennebec River basin. Vienna's
surface waters flow in three general directions. The extreme
eastern portion of Vienna, mostly to the east of McGaffey
Mountain* and Vienna Mountain, drains into the Belgrade Lakes
chain via Long Pond, eventually flowing Onto the Kennebec River
at Waterville. The western and northwestern portions of Vienna
drain into McGurdy Stream which forms the boundary between Vienna
and Chesterville. McGurdy Stream empties into the Sandy River
which, in turn, flows into the Kennebec River at Norridgewock.
The central and southern areas of town flow into the Dead River,
reaching the Androscoggin River at Leeds.
   The town of Vienna is blessed with ample quantities of high
quality fresh water. Flying Pond (360 acres), located wholly
within the town of Vienna, is its largest water body and supports
a healthy population of brown trout as well as bass, pickerel,
brook trout, salmon, smelt and perch. Other ponds in Vienna
include: Egypt Pond (41 acres in Vienna out of 70 acres total),
Kimball Pond (48 acres in Vienna out of 55 acres total), Kidder
Pond (19 acres), Davis Pond (18 acres), Boody Pond (11 acres),
Black Pond (37 acres), Crowell Pond (30 acres in Vienna out of
211 acres total), Mill Pond (3 acres), Parker'Pond (131 acres in
Vienna out of a total of 1,513 acres), and Whittier Pond (41
acres). In addition, there are several small unnamed ponds and
beaver bogs.
   Vienna has fourteen brooks and streams greater than one mile
in length, including McGurdy Stream, Mill Stream, and 12 unnamed
streams or brooks. According to the latest U.S. GB 124:000 scale
maps, Vienna has a great many very small streams — roughly half
of the town's 47 miles of identifiable streams and brooks are
less than 1 mile in length.
   In general, Vienna's water quality is excellent. The fact
that Vienna's population is small and widely dispersed has much
to do with this situation. Roughly, 4% of the total surface area
of Vienna is open land" including residential and agricultural
areas. Another 4% or so is surface waters with the remaining 92%
being forested lands. Undisturbed forest land is about the least
polluting form of land cover in terms of nutrients and sediments
lost to surface waters.
   Despite the fact that Vienna's waters are of excellent
quality, the town cannot afford to take its good fortune for
granted. Data collected by a citizen volunteer water quality
monitor, in cooperation with the Maine Department of Environ-
mental Protection revealed a significant, but temporary, decline
in water clarity during 1981. No clear downward trend in water
quality has emerged yet and the decline may simply have been a
natural fluctuation. DEP's lake biologists intend to watch
Flying Pond closely for any further signs of deterioration.
Meanwhile, there is some evidence of local activities which have

*highest peak in Kennebec County


the potential, at least, to increase the level of nutrients
(primarily phosphorus) in Flying Pond, thus increasing the risk
of unpleasant summertime algae blooms. Careless logging
practices on the steeply sloping west face of McGaffey Mountain
and Vienna Mountain resulted in severe erosion during spring
runoff in 1982 and 1983. Also, during the 1983 January thaw, a
private road on the side of McGaffey Mountain washed out,
possibly due to poorly sized or installed drainage culverts. The
resulting eroded sediments were carried through the largely
filled—in Mill Pond and deposited in Flying Pond via Mill Stream.  
Until the disturbed soils at these locations are stabilized, and
similar occurrences are prevented, sedimentation will continue .to
be a chronic problem in Mill Pond, lower Mill Stream, and Flying
   Another factor with the potential for affecting water
quality is sewage treatment. Vienna has no public wastewater
treatment facility. Homeowners rely on backyard treatment
systems such as septic tank/leach field systems to adequately
treat household sewage and gray water. Even if the septic system
is properly designed and installed, it must be maintained in
order to provide good service to the homeowner while protecting
groundwater and surface waters. A typical 1,000 gallon septic
tank should be checked (and pumped, if necessary) at least once
every three years or else solids can float out of the tank and
into the leach field rendering it useless for the purpose of
wasterwater treatment.
   Many of the houses in Vienna are old. Some have "septic
systems consisting of little more than a hole in the ground
filled with crushed stone to receive household sewage. A waste-
water system built before 1974, when Maine enacted a modern
Plumbing Code, need not be replaced unless the system
"malfunctions." Too often the only indication of a malfunction
is when the soils around such a system become clogged to the
point that sewage backs up into the house causing immediate
distress to its occupants and neighbors. In fact, the system may
have been malfunctioning for quite awhile in the sense that it
has been injecting untreated sewage into the groundwater and any
surface waters into which the groundwater discharges.
   Such a situation may explain the excessively high levels of
fecal coliform bacteria that have been detected in Mill Stream,
between the Mill Pond Darn and the inlet to Flying Pond. Bacteria  
levels in violation of Class C standards (1,000 col./100 mil.)
have been recorded on this part of Mill Stream. The presence of
fecal coliform at the concentrations found is a rather good
indication, though not proof, of the presence of human sewage in
Mill Stream. Similarly high levels of bacteria might also be
found at other locations in Vienna where there is a likelihood
that untreated sewage from substandard wastewater systems is
entering surface waters (for example, along the shoreline of
Flying Pond).
   Any homeowner who has reason to believe that his or her
wastewater treatment system is malfunctioning should be aware
that the Maine DEP administers a state—funded program to provide
90% of the cost of wastewater treatment systems to replace
systems that are polluting surface water. These funds are


distributed according to a water quality priority point system
that is used to rank the seriousness of pollution from sub-
standard systems in different towns. Income level of the home-
owner jg. n.- a factor in distributing these funds, thus, the
funds are potentially available to anyone needing such a system.
   There are many preventive measures that property owners in
Vienna can take to insure that Vienna will continue to have high
quality water in its lakes and streams. Simple actions such as
using non-phosphate detergents and reducing the use of lawn
fertilizer can help protect water quality. Proper farming and
forestry practices are essential -W. high-water quality. The
active effort of a local organization, such as a Pond Association
or Conservation Commission, to educate property owners about the
impact of their actions -n water quality is needed. Many of the
legal tools necessary to protect water quality already exist in
town ordinances and state laws. If people can be educated about
the connection between what happens on land and how it affects a
lake, stream, or well, then perhaps it will be easier for them to
accept these laws and ordinances, provided that they are
equitably enforced.

    Beautifications and Esthetics

   Vienna has always been a town proud of its appearance. In
fact, in a Maine Times article in 1980, it was stated that Vienna
is a gem" and is "perfectly groomed." Recently, there has been
an even increased level of interest in the appearance of the town,
as evidenced by beautification efforts at the town house and
concern about the appearance of the Mill Pond in Vienna Village.
   Perhaps there needs to be a coordinated effort to make
decisions about what to do. A beautification committee could be
created. This committee could be part of, or affiliated with,
one of the existing organizations in town, such as the Historical
Society or Grange, which would be the parent group, able to
supply manpower or other help.
   Projects which could be undertaken include, but need not be
limited to, painting, flower planting, erecting roadside signs,
maintaining waterways, and cleaning roadsides. Although not
under their control, these efforts should be coordinated with the
Selectmen. An article could be entered in a Town Meeting Warrant
requesting funds for a specific project or projects. The combi-
nation of contributions of time and money and some town funds
should help preserve and enhance the appealing esthetic charac-
teristics of our town.




  Vienna has been, is now and holds the promise of continuing
to be a pleasant, rural community with high esthetic qualities.  
To help ensure this continued quality the Planning Board
recommends that:

 1) The townspeople and Planning Board monitor closely the
  growth and development which takes place in town and, when
  appropriate, consider additional land use regulations such
  as a Site Plan Review Ordinance or Minimum Lot Size

 2) The Selectmen appoint a Road Committee to develop a road
  maintenance plan to set guidelines to be used for road
  maintenance and establish a specific five—year road
  maintenance plan.

 3) The Town should be aware of the possible future need of
  public recreational facilities, such as a.public beach,
  outdoor ballfield, scenic or historical areas or cross—
  country skiing area. Every opportunity to acquire property
  for such facilities should be seriously considered.

 4) The Town may want to consider regulations for trailer parks,
  junk yards, or camping grounds or some other special
  regulations before such time as some form of Land Use
  Regulations may. be adopted.

 5) An existing organization, such as the Flying Pond Improve-
  ment Association, or a new organization, such as a local
  Conservation Commission, should undertake to educate
  property owners in actions that can be taken to protect
  water quality.

 6) One or more of the existing organizations in Town, either
  individually or jointly, should consider creating a
  Beautification Committee concerned with the appearance of
  the town.